SDLC stands for software development lifecycle. A software development lifecycle is essentially a series of steps, or phases, that provide a model for the development and lifecycle management of an application or piece of software. The methodology within the SDLC process can vary across industries and organizations, but standards such as ISO/IEC 12207 represent processes that establish a lifecycle for software, and provide a mode for the development, acquisition and configuration of software systems.
The Software Development Life Cycle is a process that ensures good software is built. Each phase in the life cycle has its own process and deliverables that feed into the next phase. There are typically 5 phases starting with the analysis and requirements gathering and ending with the implementation. Let’s look in greater detail at each phase:
The intent of an SDLC process is to help produce a product that is cost-efficient, effective and of high quality. Once an application is created, the SDLC maps the proper deployment and decommissioning of the software once it becomes a legacy. The SDLC methodology usually contains the following stages:
There are following six phases in every Software development life cycle model:
- Requirement gathering and analysis
- Implementation or coding
1) Requirement gathering and analysis: Business requirements are gathered in this phase. This phase is the main focus of the project managers and stake holders. Meetings with managers, stake holders and users are held in order to determine the requirements like; Who is going to use the system? How will they use the system? What data should be input into the system? What data should be output by the system? These are general questions that get answered during a requirements gathering phase. After requirement gathering these requirements are analyzed for their validity and the possibility of incorporating the requirements in the system to be development is also studied.
Finally, a Requirement Specification document is created which serves the purpose of guideline for the next phase of the model.
2) Design: In this phase the system and software design is prepared from the requirement specifications which were studied in the first phase. System Design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture. The system design specifications serve as input for the next phase of the model.
3) Implementation / Coding: On receiving system design documents, the work is divided in modules/units and actual coding is started. Since, in this phase the code is produced so it is the main focus for the developer. This is the longest phase of the software development life cycle.
4) Testing: After the code is developed it is tested against the requirements to make sure that the product is actually solving the needs addressed and gathered during the requirements phase. During this phase unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing are done.
5) Deployment: After successful testing the product is delivered / deployed to the customer for their use.
6) Maintenance: Once when the customers starts using the developed system then the actual problems comes up and needs to be solved from time to time. This process where the care is taken for the developed product is known as maintenance.