Manual Testing FAQs

1.What are different Software Development models?

Ans:Waterfall Model, Incremental Model, Prototype Model, Spiral Model, Agile Methodology and V-Model.

2.What are the steps in SDLC?

Ans:Feasibility analysis, Requirements gathering, Design, Implementation, Testing and Release & Maintenance.

3. Describe V-Model?

Ans:It is otherwise called as Verification Validation model, testing start at very initial stage of software development process. There are 2 categories of testing performed as part of V-Model, static and dynamic testing, for every level of testing there will be plan defined.

4.What is Agile Testing model?
Ans:Agile testing involves testing from the customer perspective as early as possible, testing
early and often as code becomes available and stable enough from module/unit level testing. 
5. What is a prototype?

Ans:In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system, usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process.

6.What is White box testing and black box testing?

Ans:White box testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code.Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths and conditions.

Black box testing is functional testing, not based on any knowledge of internal software design or code. Black box testing is based on requirements and functionality.

7.What is sanity testing?

Ans:A quick and initial test to make sure the system can operate and process at least a minimal workload. It is a good idea to use a smoke test as entry criteria into feature testing, in order to ensure that the system is testable, and to avoid wasting time trying to test a system, which fails frequently.

8. Can you name few types of testing?

Ans:As part of Black box testing, following testing types can be performed: Sanity testing, Functional Testing, Re Testing, Regression Testing, System Testing, Back-End Testing, Acceptance Testing, Ad-hoc testing.

9.What is Test Plan?

Ans:A test plan is a systematic approach to testing a system such as software. The planTypically contains a detailed understanding of what the eventual workflow will be.The test plan defines the objectives and scope of the testing effort, and identifies themethodology that your team will use to conduct tests. It also identifies the hardware,software, and tools required for testing and the features and functions that will be tested. A well-rounded test plan notes any risk factors that jeopardize testing and includes a testing schedule.

10.What is Testing Life Cycle?

Ans:A collection various activities performed in executing a software application, it consists of the following stages.

  1. Requirements stage
  2. Test Plan
  3. Test Design.
  4. Design Reviews
  5. Test Cases preparation.
  6. Test Execution
  7. Test Reports.
  8. Bugs Reporting
  9. Reworking on patches.
  10. Release to production.

11. What is Test Strategy?

Ans:The Test Strategy is the plan for how you are going to approach testing. It is like a project charter that tells the world how you are going to approach the project.
12.What is difference between QA and QC?

Ans: Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives.
Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product.

13.To whom you report defects?

Ans:A defect is generally reported to the test lead and lead will intern assign it to the development team, but at times the defect is assigned directly to the developer by the test engineer.

14. What is showstopper?

Ans:A hardware or especially software bug that makes an implementation effectively unusable one that absolutely has to be fixed as early as possible.

15.What are the severity levels you give for a defect?

Ans:We follow four levels of severity for a defect, Critical, High, Medium and low (cosmetic)

16.How are you tracking defects in your project?

Ans:Using defect tracking tool (Quality Center)

17.What is defect life cycle?

Ans:Various stages of a defect from the time it’s identified till the same is closed is know as defect life cycle.

18. What are the defect statuses?

Ans:Statuses of a defect can be: New, Open, Fixed, Deferred, Not a bug, duplicate, reopen and closed.

19.What are error, defect and failure?

Ans: Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result

Defect: A flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function

 Failure: Deviation of the component or system from its expected delivery, service or result.
20. What is difference between unit testing and Integration Testing?

Ans: Unit Testing: It is a method of testing that verifies the individual units of source code are working fine.

 Integration Testing: Objective of Integration testing is to make sure that the interaction of two or more components produces results that satisfy functional requirement. In integration testing, test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising the interface between the components.

21.What is regression testing and Retesting?

Ans: Regression Testing: Regression testing is done to ensure that enhancement, defect fixes Or  any other changes made to the software has not broken any existing functionality.

Retesting: When a developer resolves/fixes a defect on a modified build, then it would be sent to testing team for retesting that defect, to evaluate the bug fix work. Perform the retesting, If the defect is successfully resolved then the corresponding defect Can be formally closed otherwise it should be properly fixed in the next build.

22.What is BVA?

Ans:The purpose of boundary value analysis is to concentrate the testing effort on error prone areas by accurately pinpointing the boundaries of conditions

23. What is Traceability matrix?

Ans:A traceability matrix is created by associating requirements with the work products that satisfy them. Tests are associated with the requirements on which they are based and the product tested to meet the requirement.

24.How do you prepare traceability matrix?

Ans:Requirements traceability with the tests can be prepared in to a simple EXCEL documents or we can also perform this activity more effectively Quality Center (Test Management Tool)

25. What are the contents of Test Plan?

Ans:Contents of Test Plan:

    Title of the Project
    Document History and Approvals
    Assumptions and Dependencies
    Risks and Mitigations
    Trainings Required
    Entry and Exit Criteria
    Suspension and Resumption Criteria
    Test Deliverables
    Test Environment
    Test approach
    Test Management
    Defect Prioritization
    Documents Referred

26.What is a Build?

Ans:After completion of development dev. team release to testing team. After sanity testing if any changes required modifies the build & releases with different build name.

27.What is configuration management?

Ans:Configuration management (CM) is a processes used to control, coordinate and track code, requirements, documentation, problems, change requests, designs, tools, compilers,
libraries, patches, changes made to them and who makes the changes.

28.Suppose if the developer rejects defect what you will do as a Test Engineer?

Ans:Firstly I will set up a review meeting with the developer and make him understand, by reproducing the defect and referring to the requirements documents.

29. How many test cases you write in one day?

Ans:On an average of 25 test cases a day

30.How many defects you find in one day?

Ans:It depends on the application and the number of test cases executed in a day.

31.What is ECP?

Ans:Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method.Divide the input domain of a program into classes of data Derive test cases based on these partitions.An quivalence class represents a set of valid or invalid states for input condition.An input condition is:A specific numeric value, a range of values A set of related values, or a Boolean condition.

32.What is a Test Case?

Ans:Normally a system is expected to perform a certain function. The Test cases verifies thatThe system does in fact perform this function as expected – that is, as described by the use case/Requirement.

33.What are the fields in Test Case?

Ans: The test case will have TestCase,ID,Description,Preconditions
Priority,Steps / Action,Expected Result,Actual Result,Status,Module name,Test Engineer name,Project name,Date

34. As a Test Engineer what are your responsibilities?

Ans:Requirement Analysis and Test case Identification Preparing test cases,Executing testcases,Preparing defects,reports Participating in review meetings.

35.How do you prepare Test Data?

Ans:We prepare test data generally in excel sheet based LLD,FRS/SRS.

36.What are the fields in Defect report?

Ans:The defect report will have

  1. Defect ID
  2. Summary
  3. Priority
  4. Severity
  5. Assigned To
  6. Detected By
  7. Status
  8. Resolution Type
  9. Fixed By
  10. Build Ver
  11. Expected
  12. Actual
  13. Repro Steps
  14. Release Ver

37. What is Clear box testing?

Ans:White box testing is also called as clear box testing as dev. team verifies internal logic.

38. As a Test Lead what are your responsibilities?

Ans:Prepare test plan
Conducting review meetings
Review test documents
Preparing status reports
Monitoring the process

39.What is kickoff meeting?

Ans:An initial Project start up meeting from which the formal test activities are initiated.

40.What are the drawbacks in manual testing compared to Automation?

Ans: Following are the drawbacks of manual testing,
Time consuming
Low reliability
Human resources
41. What are the Test Deliverables?

Ans:The following items will be delivered
Test Plan
Test Cases (Maintained in QC)
Daily Test Execution Report
Test Exit Report
Defect Log (Maintained in QC)
Traceability Matrix
Project Metrics.
42.Suppose if you don’t have test cases how do you conduct Testing?

Ans:We have to adopt for the informal test execution processes to uncover defects in the System by performing testing like Ad-Hoc, Where this testing does not require the formal test cases but it is based on the previous experience on the system under test.

43.What are the difficulties if you do testing without test cases?

Ans:Test Cases would provide formal way of performing testing, which contribute for the expected requirements coverage with out test case design, Expectations may not be clear Possibility of missing some of the test scenarios Test Data not documented and hence no proper impact on the functionalities.  Test execution can be initiated by testers without 100% system knowledge. It cannot guaranty the expected test coverage.

44.What is functional testing and nonfunctional testing?

Ans:Functional testing would address testing the functional features of the software system like Customer Creation, Fund Transfer etc, Where as nonfunctional testing concentrates on testing functional features of the software system like the Performance Parameters associated with the system, Security Testing, Compatibility Testing.

45.What is Test Bed?

Ans:Test Bed is an execution environment configured for software testing. It consists of specific hardware, network topology, Operating System, configuration of the product to be under test, system software and other applications.

46.What is Test Setup environment?

Ans:A Test Environment set up would have the selection of the following components as closely as possible to the live environment in which the build would be deployed and tested.Operating System,  Browsers,  Web Server and App Server,  Database (Oracle/DB2) Test environment is the working environment where tests will be executed. The Testing Team may have their own Test Environment. Once the testing team certifies the system in Test Environment, it is migrated to the Production Environment.
47.What are the different types of testing can be conducted for web application?

Ans:The Web Application testing should have the following coverage’s.Web Functionality Testing, Database functionality Testing,Usability Testing, Performance Testing,Browser Compatibility Testing,Security Testing,Localization Testing.

48.What is smoke testing?

Ans: A quick and initial test to make sure the system can operate and process at least a minimal workload. It is a good idea to use a smoke test as entry criteria into feature testing, in order to ensure that the system is testable, and to avoid wasting time trying to test a system,which fails frequently.What is adhoc testing?

Ans: A random and informal test performed based on the experience, this would be conducted At later stages in the test execution life cycle since the test case execution may not provide 100% test coverage. We would use this test to improve test coverage by identifying the defects, which are uncovered by the test cases.

50.What are test scenarios?

Ans:Test Scenarios are the end-to-end test cases prepared to test a realistic business flow with A specific pre-condition, Test Data Values and expected behavior.

51.How do you prepare test scenarios?

Ans:The Test Scenarios are derived from Requirements documents/Use Case Documents Based on the following factorsIdentify the multiple flows associated with a given event or a business scenario Identify the multiple conditions associated with a given event.Identify the multiple data values required.

52.What is difference between severity and priority of a defect?

Ans:Defect Severity represents how badly the functionality was failed and what serious impact It will have on the remaining system functionalities and also on the customer business, Where as Defect Priority represents the importance of the defect and its resolution by the developers. The Severity and Priority levels are provided by the testers, The Severity levels should not be changed, but the priority levels can be changed by the Test Lead/Developers from on build to another based on the defects to be resolved.

53.What is priority for a Test Case?

Ans:Priority of a test case should represent what risk and important functionality /Requirement it would cover for testing.

54.What is the status for a Test Case?

Ans:No Run
Not Completed

55.Can you write test cases for a pen?

Ans:Dimension of the pen,
Color of the pen,
logo of the pen maker,
Total length that pen can write,
Strength of the nib,
grip of the pen.
Against the surface it can write.
Hanger provided in the cap,
body of the pen should perfectly fit with the cap of the pen,

56.What is defect Age?

TAns:he time difference between defect reported and the defect resolved on.

57.What is latency time?

Ans:Latency time is a wasted time where a specific event would be waiting for another event to happen, for example a defect reported by the testing team would not get resolved for several modified builds would be called as a latent defect.

58.What is response time?

Ans:It is one of the important performance parameter, which would evaluate the Time interval between the instance at which a user at a GUI of the software system enters a request for a response from a computer and the instance at which the first character of the response is received at the GUI.
59.What are entry criteria for Test Execution?

Ans:Test Execution process can be formally initiated based on the following conditions.
The Test case design is completed with expected coverage for the given requirements.Test Data set up completed and incorporated in all the test cases.Test Environment set up completed Build Have enough stability to take testing(Testable).

60. What is Alpha & Beta Testing?

Ans: Alpha Testing:
The Alpha test is conducted at the developer’s site by a customer.The Software is used in a natural setting along with the developer.The developer records the error and usage problems.Alpha Tests are done in a controlled environment.
Beta Testing:
The Beta Test is conducted at one or more customer site by the end users of the software.The developer is not present during these tests.The customer records the error and reports these to the developers.
This is followed by the release of the product.

61.How do you review the test cases?

Ans:The Reviews are the Static Techniques, which are driven by the Checklist. The Checklist should be provided with the list of questionnaires indicating the information to be incorporated, Standards to be followed for a Test Case.

62.What is closed box testing and open box testing?

Ans:Closed box testing is blackbox testing where as openbox tesing is whitebox testing.

63.What are stubs and drivers?

Ans:Stub:- A skeletal or special-purpose implementation of a software component, used to develop or test a component that calls or is otherwise dependent on it. It replaces a called component
 Driver :-A software component or test tool that replaces a component that takes care of the control and/or the calling of a component or system.

64.What is verification and validation?

Ans:Validation: The process of evaluating software to determine compliance with specifiedrequirements.
 Verification: The process of evaluating the products of a given software development activity to determine correctness and consistency with respect to the products and standards provided as input to that activity.

65.How do you conduct end to end testing?

Ans:Our test management team provides us end to end test scenarios. Based on that I will continue end to end testing on the application.

66. What is a release note?

Ans:A release note is given to client along with the build when it is ready for the deployment.Release notes consists of the deployment details and also the known limitations of the build, if there are any critical errors that are still Not resolved and build is to be released, then those are also mentioned in the release notes.

67. What is signoff?

Ans:Taking an final approval of an document and process is called signoff

68.What type of testing you perform in organization while you do System testing, give clearly?

Ans:Functional testing
User interface testing
Usability testing
Compatibility testing
User help testing
Security testing
Capacity testing
Performance testing
Sanity testing
Regression testing
Reliability testing
Recovery testing

69.What are the Test Challenges you faced in your project?

Ans:While doing execution, unexpectedly some of the applications are down or environment unavailability.Data issues i.e proper data has not been provided for executing the test case.
Some of the application links are not working which are Provided in environment sheet

70.Write test cases for sending mails through microsoft-outlook xpress?

Ans:Check the successful login of the Microsoft oulook xpress after entering the user ID,password.Check whether the Microsoft oulook xpress is opening.Check whether the new mail/reply/reply to all/forward button is enable.Check that we are able to type the subject, body in the mail.Check that we r able to add the email_ID (email_address).Check whether the signature is automated in the new mail/reply/reply to all/forward mails.(if required) Spell check (if required) check whether the send button is enable.